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The Foundation for the Exhibition of Photography aims to enlighten, delight, and inspire people around the world through the presentation of museum-quality photography exhibitions, publications, related online content, symposia, lectures, and other forms of educational events and materials.
As a non-profit organization, FEP needs help to thrive and continue to develop ambitious exhibitions. You can support our activities by making a donation. Donations are fully deductible from the taxable income for Americans and we offer special privileges to our generous contributors (contact us for more information).
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Founded in 2003, the Foundation for the Exhibition of Photography is a non-profit organization based in Minneapolis, a city with a vibrant tradition of support for the arts.
FEP has achieved substantial results in its first two decades, with its shows travelling to 35 countries on 4 continents, and with catalogues produced in many different language editions.
FEP has always valued collaboration with institutions and individuals, and has worked with curators, historians, critics and educators in pursuance of its goals. Among the distinguished experts who have contributed or who are contributing to FEP’s projects are William Ewing (formerly Director of Musée de l’Elysée, Lausanne), Joan Simon (formerly curator-at-large, Whitney Museum); A. D. Coleman (historian, critic and curator); Douglas Fogle (formerly curator at the Hammer Museum in LA); Tobia Bezzola (now Director, MASI, Lugano); Elizabeth Armstrong (formerly, Assistant Director of the Minneapolis Institute of Arts); Anne Tucker (formerly, curator of Photography at MFA Houston); Arthur Ollman (formerly, Director of Museum of Photographic Arts, San Diego); Bartomeu Mari (formerly, Director of MMCA, Seoul); Nathalie Herschdorfer (Director, Photo Elysée, Lausanne).
Among the institutions we have worked with closely are the following: Musée de l’Elysée, Lausanne; Jeu de Paume, Paris; Kunsthaus Zürich; Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto; High Museum of Art Atlanta; Amon Carter Museum of American Art, Fort Worth.; Norton Museum of Art, West Palm Beach, Florida; Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri; Haus der Kunst, Munich; Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid; National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne; Auckland Art Gallery, NZ; Ullens Center for Contemporary Art, Beijing; National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art of Korea, Seoul.
Alona Pardo has been a Curator at Barbican Art Gallery in London for over 15 years. With a focus on photography and film, she has curated and edited numerous exhibitions and publications including most recently Masculinities: Liberation through Photography (2020); Trevor Paglen: From Apple to Anomaly (2019); Dorothea Lange: Politics of Seeing (2018); Vanessa Winship: And Time Folds (2018); Another Kind of Life: Photography on the Margins (2018); Richard Mosse: Incoming (2017) and Strange and Familiar: Britain as seen by International Photographers (with Martin Parr; 2016). She has a particular interest in work that exists in the intersection between activism, aesthetics and identity.
Todd Brandow worked as an art consultant in New York for many years. Since 1997, he has been living in Paris, working as an independent photography curator and book publisher, founding the Foundation for the Exhibition of Photography (FEP) in 2003 to facilitate these activities. He co-produced and co-curated the highly successful Edward S. Curtis vintage exhibitions that were exhibited in European museums between 2000 and 2006. Brandow co-curated a retrospective tour of Finnish photographer Arno Rafael Minkkinen with critic A. D. Coleman, and two Edward Steichen exhibitions with William Ewing and Nathalie Herschdorfer. Recent projects include co-productions with the Harry Ransom Center on Arnold Newman, the Jeu de Paume on Lorna Simpson, the High Museum of Art on Vik Muniz, MIT on Polaroid: Art and Technology, a major survey show on the history of fashion photography at Condé Nast, Coming into Fashion, as well as a major photographic survey of the 21st century, Civilization: The Way We Live Now, co-produced with the National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art of Korea (MMCA). New projects include monographs on Thomas Demand, William Wegman, Nick Knight, Sally Mann and James Balog, as well as the thematic show, Beyond Fashion. Since 2012, FEP has also contributed to The Todi Circle, a yearly photography symposium in Umbria, Italy.
David Campany is a curator, writer, editor, and educator. He teaches at the University of Westminster London, and is a Curator at Large for the International Center of Photography, New York. Renowned for his engaging and rigorous writing, exhibitions and public speaking, David has worked worldwide with institutions including MoMA New York, Tate, Whitechapel Gallery London, Centre Pompidou, Le Bal Paris, ICP New York, Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, The Photographer’s Gallery London, ParisPhoto, PhotoLondon, The National Portrait Gallery London, Aperture, Steidl, MIT Press, Thames & Hudson, MACK and Frieze. Recent curatorial projects include William Klein: Yes. Photographs, Paintings, Films 1948-2013 (International Center of Photography, New York, 2022), ACTUAL SIZE! Photography at Life Scale (International Center of Photography, New York, 2022); A Trillion Sunsets: A Century of Image Overload (International Center of Photography, New York, 2022); Gillian Laub: Family Matters (International Center of Photography, New York, 2021); Alex Majoli: SCENE (Le Bal, Paris, 2019); The Still Point of the Turning World: Between Film and Photography (FoMu Antwerp, 2017). In 2020, David curated the three-city Biennale für aktuelle Fotografie 2020 – The Lives and Loves of Images (Mannheim/Ludwigshafen/Heidelberg, Germany), working with 70 artists from 13 countries. David’s many books include Indeterminacy: Thoughts on Time, The Image and Race(ism), co-written with Stanley Wolukau-Wanambwa (MACK 2022), Victor Burgin’s Photopath (MACK 2022), On Photographs(2020), So Present, So Invisible – conversations on photography (Contrasto 2018), A Handful of Dust (MACK 2015), The Open Road: photography and the American road trip (Aperture S2014), Walker Evans: the magazine work (Steidl 2014), Gasoline (MACK 2013), Jeff Wall: Picture for Women (MIT Press/ After all 2010), Photography and Cinema (Reaktion 2008) and Art and Photography (Phaidon 2003). He has written over two hundred essays for monographs and museums. He contributes to Frieze, FOAM, Aperture, Source and Tate magazines. David has a Phd. For his writing, he has received the ICP Infinity Award, the Kraszna-Krausz Book Award, the Alice Award, a Deutscher Fotobuchpreis, and the Royal Photographic Society award.
Joshua Chuang is a curator, writer, and editor whose work has thus far centered on postwar American and contemporary photography. He began his curatorial career at the Yale University Art Gallery, where was appointed the museum’s first dedicated curator of photography, and subsequently served as chief curator at the Center for Creative Photography in Tucson, Arizona. Among his projects are the acclaimed touring retrospective exhibition Robert Adams: The Place We Live; First Doubt: Optical Confusion in Modern Photography; and The Pure Products of America Go Crazy, along with their attendant publications. In addition to his work as a curator, he has made key contributions to more than twenty artist’s monographs, including those on the work of Robert Adams, Lee Friedlander, Judith Joy Ross, Santu Mofokeng, and Mark Ruwedel.
A. D. Coleman is a prolific writer of photography history and criticism who has published widely since the 1960s. Born in 1943, he is based in New York City. During the 1960s and 1970s, Coleman was a regular columnist for the Village Voice, Popular Photography, The New York Times and Camera 35. His books include The Grotesque in Photography (1977), Light Readings: A Photography Critic’s Writings (1979), Critical Focus: Photography in the International Community (1995) and The Digital Evolution: Photography in the Electronic Age, Essays, Lectures and Interviews, 1967-1997 (1998). Curatorial projects include Testimonies: Photography and Social Issues (Houston Fotofest International 1990) and SAGA: The Journey of Arno Rafael Minkkinen (FEP, 2005, co-curated with Todd Brandow). He received the first Art Critic’s Fellowship ever awarded in photography by the National Endowment for the Arts in 1976, and a major Hasselblad Foundation Grant in 1991. A Fulbright Senior Scholar in Sweden in 1994, he received the prestigious Kulturpreis der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Photographie (The Culture Award of the German Photographic Society) for 2002.
Deborah G. Douglas is Director of Collections and Curator of Science and Technology at the MIT Museum. In 2010, she acquired the Polaroid Company Historical Collection which contains more than 10,000 rare artifacts including cameras, prototypes and test equipment. A specialist in the history of technology and science, Douglas has curated more than 30 exhibitions and displays including the museum’s largest, the MIT 150 Exhibition for the Institute’s sesquicentennial celebration in 2011. Author of several books and articles, her most recent publication is Countless Connecting Threads, MIT´s History Revealed Through Its Most Evocative Objects (The MIT Press, 2013).
Luke Erickson is a photographer, curator and educator who lives in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Since 2011, he is the director of FEP Minneapolis. He received a BA from the University of Redlands and a MA from the University of Illinois-Chicago in art history. Luke was director of the film program in the Department of Public Programs at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts. Luke worked for many years as a photographer in Los Angeles and directed the short film Frank Gehry’s Schnabel House. He was a creative director, location scout and photographer for many film companies in Los Angeles. He collaborated with Pablo Ferro on the title sequence for the film Late Last Night. He has exhibited widely in the United States and his work is in many private, corporate and municipal art collections. Luke is also the curator of RUNNER RUNNER Gallery in Minneapolis. He also teaches classes on art and film.
William A. Ewing is a well-known curator and writer on photography. From 1977 to 1984 he was Director of Exhibitions at the International Center of Photography, New York, and between 1996 and 2010 he was Director of the Musée de l’Elysée, Lausanne. His exhibitions have been shown at many museums in America and Europe, including the Museum of Modern Art, New York; the Centre Pompidou, Paris; the Hayward Gallery and the Serpentine Gallery, London; the Kunsthaus Zürich; and the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts. His recent books include The Body, The Century of the Body, and Face: The New Photographic Portrait. He has also co-authored, with Brandow and Herschdorfer, two Edward Steichen publications: Edward Steichen: Lives in Photography and Edward Steichen: In High Fashion, the Condé Nast Years 1923-1937. Mr Ewing is also Director of Curatorial Projects for the international publishing house, Thames & Hudson. His most recent publications are Landmark: The Fields of Landscape Photography (Thames and Hudson, 2014), Edward Burtynsky: Essential Elements (Thames and Hudson, 2016), and William Wegman: Being Human (Thames and Hudson, 2017).
Douglas Fogle is a curator and writer based in Los Angeles with over twenty years of curatorial experience at three major Americaninstitutions (Walker Art Center, Minneapolis; Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh; and Hammer Museum, Los Angeles). His most recent exhibition Andy Warhol: Dark Star, opened at Museo Jumex in June 2017. From 2009-2012 he served as Deputy Director, Exhibition and Programs and Chief Curator at the Hammer Museum in Los Angeles where he organized a variety of exhibitions including Ed Ruscha: On the Road, (2011), Mark Manders: Parallel Occurrences/Documented Assignments (2010), and Luisa Lambri: Being there (2010).Previously, he served as curator of contemporary art at the Carnegie Museum of Art in Pittsburgh from 2005-2009 where he organizedLife on Mars, the 55th Carnegie International in 2008. Prior to that, Fogle was a curator in the Visual Arts Department of the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis from 1994-2005 where he curated exhibitions such as Painting at the Edge of the World (2001), The Last Picture Show: Artists Using Photography 1960-1982 (2003), and Catherine Opie: Skyways and Ice Houses (2002). As a writer he has contribut- ed to numerous periodicals and exhibition catalogues for artists such as Leonor Antunes, Irma Blank, Dirk Braeckman and Luisa Lambri.
Francois Hébel has been Director of Les Rencontres de la photographie at Arles in 1986-1987, when he showed works by a new generation of photographers, including seminal figures of the 1980s such as Martin Parr, Nan Goldin, Paul Graham, Annie Leibovitz, Sebastiao Salgado, and Eugene Richards. Between 1987 and 2000, he led the photography agency, Magnum (Paris and International). He returned to the prestigious festival Les Rencontres in 2001 as Director, where he has remained for thirteen years. Hébel also co-created the Photo Spring festival in Beijing, China. His publications include Mick Jagger: The Photobook (Contrasto +4, 2010) and Harry Gruyaert, Rivages (Textuel, 2003).
Nathalie Herschdorfer is an art historian specialized in history of photography. Curator at FEP, she is also Director of Photo Elysée, Lausanne and former Director of the Museum of Fine Arts, Le Locle, Switzerland (2014-2022). In 2010 she was named director of the photography festival Alt. +1000 in Switzerland for which she curated two years of programming. Previously, she was a curator at the Musée de l’Elysée in Lausanne, where she worked for twelve years on major exhibitions, including Face: the Death of the Portrait, and retrospectives of Edward Steichen, Leonard Freed, Ray K. Metzker and Valérie Belin. She is the author of Afterwards: Contemporary Photography Confronting the Past (2011), editor of Le Corbusier and the Power of Photography (2012) and co-author, with William A. Ewing, of reGeneration: Tomorrow’s Photographers Today, two books dedicated to emerging photography on the international scene. Among her recent projects are a dictionary of photography including over 1,200 concise yet fully detailed entries on all aspects of the subject (Thames & Hudson/Editions de La Martinière, 2015), the book NewSwissArchitecture (2015), and Coming into Fashion: A Century of Photography at Condé Nast, a travelling exhibition produced by FEP and accompanied by a book published in 6 editions.
Barbara Hitchcock, former Cultural Affairs director, joined Polaroid Corporation in the 1970s in a research and development capacity. In 1978 Hitchcock joined Polaroid’s international division publicity department, where she coordinated all the photographic requirements of the subsidiary publicity departments. Appearing as a Polaroid spokesperson on national and international television and radio broadcasts, she promoted new Polaroid films and hardware. Since 1982, Hitchcock was made responsible for the strategic marketing communications and program planning, development and execution of Polaroid’s cultural activities. She acquired fine art photographs for Polaroid, managed its multi-million dollar art collections and its traveling exhibitions.
She has been the curator of several exhibitions, including The Big Picture; Olivia Parker: Objects and Implications; Sightseeing: A Space Panorama, a collaboration with NASA; In Grand Perspective; Polaroid 50: Art and Technology; It’s a Dog’s Life: Photography by William Wegman; Fins, Wings and Other Such Things: Photographs from the Polaroid Collections; Ansel Adams & Edwin Land: Art, Science & Invention – Photographs from the Polaroid Collections; and Sanctuary: Anna Tomczak Photography. During the late 1980s and 1990s, she oversaw Polaroid’s 20×24-studio program, expanding both its artist support and commercial growth.
Bartomeu Marí is an author and curator of international renown. He served as Director of the Museum of Contemporary Art of Barcelona (MACBA) between 2008 and 2015, and previously was the Chief Curator and Head of the Exhibitions Department at MACBA from 2004 to 2008. He served as well as Director of Witte de With Centre for Contemporary Art in Rotterdam, Holland, from 1996 to 2001; as Curator of Exhibitions at IVAM-Centre Julio González in Valencia, Spain from 1994 to 1996; and as Curator of Exhibitions at the Fondation pour l’Architecture in Brussels, Belgium from 1989 to 1995. In 2005 he was the curator of the Spanish Pavilion at the Venice Biennale, and in 2002 he co-curated the Taipei Biennale together with Chia chi Jason Wang. He is the author of numerous catalogues and monographs on contemporary art. Marí is currently the President of the International Committee of Museums and Collections of Modern and Contemporary Art (CIMAM), an international committee of ICOM.
Serubiri Moses is a writer and curator who lives in New York. He is currently Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Dept of Art and Art History at Hunter College, and Adjunct Professor in the Art History department at New York University. Moses is also currently co-curator for the fifth edition of the perennial survey of contemporary art, Greater New York, at MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY. Previously, Moses was part of the curatorial team for the tenth Berlin Biennale of Contemporary Art entitled “We Don’t Need Another Hero” (2017-2018). From 2013 to 2017 Moses travelled extensively to participate in curatorial residencies, conferences, and juries across Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Europe. In 2015, Moses held the position of Stadtschreiber, an academic fellowship, at the Bayreuth Academy of Advanced African Studies and in 2014 he co-curated the second public art biennial in Kampala, KLA ART, entitled “Unmapped” and organised a four-volume public program at the Goethe Zentrum Kampala. From 2011-2012 he was a critic at the Ugandan daily newspaper New Vision Daily. With his interests ranging from historical narration, exhibition history, African feminist theory and iconography, Moses is currently an associate researcher in “African Art History and the Formation of a Modern Aesthetic,” a long-term project founded by the Bayreuth Academy of Advanced African Studies in Germany. Moses completed the MA in Curatorial Studies from the Center for Curatorial Studies, Bard College, where his thesis focused on exhibition histories of small projects in Africa.
Arthur Ollman has been a photographer for 53 years. He has had more than 25 one person exhibitions in museums and galleries worldwide. He has been part of more than 60 group exhibitions and his art is in many museums and both private and corporate collections.
In 1983 he became the founding Director of the Museum of Photographic Arts, in San Diego, serving there for 23 years. He curated more than 100 exhibitions. They have been seen in 9 countries and many great museums. He built a museum collection of more than 7,000 objects and a research library of 27,000 volumes. He has written all or parts of many books, and numerous articles.
From 2006‐2011 he directed The School of Art, Design and Art History at San Diego State University. He has been a Professor of Art History and Photography and is now an Emeritus Professor at the same institution.
Ollman continues to curate exhibitions and write for catalogs. His recent exhibitions include Vik Muniz, with the accompanying eponymous book published by DelMonico Prestel, and Hard Truths: Five Photojournalists from the New York Times.
In 2012 he became the Chairman of the Board of the Foundation for the Exhibition of Photography.
Danaé Panchaud is a curator and lecturer specialising in photography. She is currently the director of the Centre de la photographie in Geneva. From 2018 to 2021 she was the director and main curator of the Photoforum Pasquart in Biel, one of the main institutions for contemporary photography in Switzerland.
She trained in photography, curatorial practices and museology in Switzerland (Vevey Photography School and Geneva University of Art and Design) and in the United Kingdom (Birkbeck, University of London). Before her appointment as head of the Photoforum in January 2018, she curated exhibitions for several Swiss institutions in the fields of photography, contemporary art, design and science, including Fondation Claude Verdan, mudac and standard/deluxe, Lausanne; Gallery SAKS and Fonds d’art contemporain de la Ville de Genève, Geneva; and CEPV, Vevey. She was a lecturer at the Vevey Photography School from 2014 to 2018.
Dr. Nissan N. Perez worked for over 37 years as Senior Curator of Photography at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem, where he conceived of and created the department of photography with its now extensive collection of over 120,000 items. During his curatorial career he curated over 180 exhibitions in Israel and worldwide, from Japan to Europe to the American West Coast, many of which traveled and most of which were accompanied by companion catalogs. He also was very active as a writer, publishing a substantial number of books, catalogs and articles. Currently Vice-President/Director of the Shpilman Institute for Photography (SIP) in Tel Aviv, Perez works additionally as an independent advisor and curator and teaches graduate courses and seminars at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, The Ben Gourion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, and at the Universitát Politécnica de Valéncia, Spain.
Rebekka Reuter is a curator for photography. She studied Applied Cultural Sciences at the Leuphana University of Lüneburg and gained curatorial experience at institutions such as the Fotomuseum Winterthur, the Photo Collection of the Folkwang Museum, Essen, the Photo Museum of Munich and Camera Austria, Graz. Text contributions to several exhibition catalogues and art magazines. As the head curator of WestLicht Museum for Photography (since 2009) and OstLicht Gallery for Photography in Vienna, she has been responsible for numerous exhibitions – solo shows from Alexander Rodtschenko (Revolution in Photography, 2013) to Ren Hang (野生, 2015), topics ranging from Polaroid (POLAROID [IM] POSSIBLE, 2011) to Photography as Sculpture (2D23D, 2014). The OstLicht Collection comprises about 80,000 photographs from all periods of the mediums’ history, among them the International Polaroid Collection, acquired in 2011.
Holly Roussell Perret-Gentil is an associate curator, museologist, and art historian specialising in photography and contemporary art from Asia based in Switzerland and Suzhou, China. She also has served as coordinator of the worldwide travelling exhibitions program and photography prize, the Prix Elysée, for the Musée de l’Elysée, Lausanne since 2013. Her first major curatorial project was working as assistant curator to William Ewing on the 21st century survey of landscape photography, Landmark: The Fields of Landscape Photography, and the accompanying publication (Thames & Hudson, 2014). She was later co-curator of the Chinese photography exhibition, Works in Progress: Photography in China 2015, presented at the Folkwang Museum in Essen. Holly Roussell has contributed as author to exhibition catalogues and magazines on photography. Recent publications include the Dictionary of Photography (Thames & Hudson, 2015), and Prix Elysée Nominees’ Book (Editions Photosynthèses/ Musée de l’Elysée, 2017) and Jehsong Baak, One Last Goodbye (Wonderlust Press, 2016).
Joan Simon is an independent curator, writer, and arts administrator based in Paris. As curator-at-large for the Whitney Museum of American Art (2004-2009), she organized Alexander Calder: The Paris Years, 1926-1933 (2008), with Brigitte Leal, in a partnership with the Centre Pompidou, Paris (seen there in 2009), and Alice Guy Blaché: Cinema Pioneer (2009), the first comprehensive retrospective of the work of cinema’s first woman director and studio owner, whose careers in France and the U.S. spanned 1896 and 1920. Simon was a contributor to Gordon Matta-Clark: “You Are the Measure” (2007) and Jenny Holzer: Protect Protect (organized by the MCA Chicago and the Beyeler Foundation, which traveled to the Whitney 2010). She organized Sheila Hicks: Fifty Years (with Susan Faxon) for the Addison Gallery of American Art, Andover, Mass. (2010), traveling in 2011 to the ICA, Philadelphia, and the Mint Museum of Craft + Design, Charlotte, North Carolina.
A former managing editor of Art in America (1974–83), Simon has published extensively on contemporary art for numerous journals, including Parkett and Art Press, and Art in America where she is a contributing editor. Among her books are Susan Rothenberg (1991), William Wegman: Funney-Strange (2006), and Ann Hamilton: An Inventory of Objects (2007), which was named one of the Outstanding Academic Books of the year by Choice Magazine, and honored by the AIGA (American Institute of Graphic Arts), as one of the year’s best “50 Books/50 Covers.” She has contributed to numerous exhibition catalogues, including those devoted to Robert Gober, Sheila Hicks, Joan Jonas, Annette Messager, Bruce Nauman, Fred Sandback, Rosemarie Trockel, and served as general editor of the exhibition catalogue and catalogue raisonné Bruce Nauman (1994).
Gary Van Zante is Curator of Architecture, Design and Photography at the MIT Museum, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he has also been Interim Director of Exhibitions (2008-13) and Director of Gallery Planning (2008-13). At MIT since 2002, he has curated exhibitions ranging from sixteenth-century architectural graphics to contemporary design practice and photography, including a recent exhibition of Berenice Abbott’s science photographs. Van Zante has also organized exhibitions of the work of Joel Tettamanti, Margaret Morton, Gabrielle Basilico, and Cervin Robinson. He has curated over 50 exhibitions. Van Zante’s published work includes a monograph on the nineteenth-century American photographer Theodore Lilienthal (New Orleans 1867: Photographs by Theodore Lilienthal, Merrell, 2008), and recent articles on contemporary photography for Places.
Anne Wilkes Tucker is curator emerita of the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, having, in 1976, become founding curator of the photography department for which she acquired 35,000 photographs made on all seven continents. She has curated over 40 exhibitions and contributed over 150 essays to monographs, catalogues, and magazines and lectured throughout North and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Her many honors, fellowships, and awards include being selected as American’s Best Curator by Time Magazine in 2001.
Born in 1959, Gu Zheng is a photographer, critic, historian, curator, and educator. Associate Professor in the School of Journalism at Fudan University in Shanghai, he serves as Vice-director of that university’s Research Center for Visual Culture. He has been in contact with American photography since the middle of the 1970s, when he resided in the U.S. A long-time friend of the historian of photography Beaumont Newhall, he studied under him at the University of Albuquerque in 1979. Gu has published numerous books of his own writings on photography, and in 2001 received the Chinese Photography Golden Figure Prize in Theory and Criticism. In 2001 and 2003 he was honored with Art Critic Awards from the Association of Chinese Literature and Art. Additionally, Gu has translated into Chinese many texts on photography, from classic to postmodern. He has curated several group exhibitions of Chinese photography for venues in in China, South Korea, and the United States.